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Falls can be a serious concern for the elderly, often leading to injuries that can impact their quality of life. However, many falls are preventable through a combination of exercises and lifestyle adjustments that improve lower extremity strength and balance. In this article, we'll explore strategies to help seniors increase their lower extremity strength and enhance balance to avoid falls.

The Importance of Fall Prevention

Falls are a leading cause of injury among older adults. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one out of four people aged 65 and older falls each year. Falls can result in fractures, head injuries, and even a fear of falling that limits an individual's mobility and independence.

Fortunately, there are proactive steps that seniors can take to reduce their risk of falling, including targeted exercises and lifestyle changes.

Lower Extremity Strength and Balance Exercises1. Leg Raises

Leg raises are a simple yet effective exercise for strengthening the muscles in the lower extremities, including the quadriceps and hip flexors.

How to do it:

  1. Stand behind a sturdy chair for support.
  2. Hold onto the back of the chair for balance.
  3. Lift one leg straight back behind you.
  4. Hold for a few seconds.
  5. Lower your leg back down.
  6. Repeat for 10-15 repetitions on each leg.

2. Heel-to-Toe Walk

This exercise helps improve balance and coordination, which are essential for fall prevention.

How to do it:

  1. Stand with your feet touching, heel to toe.
  2. Take small steps, placing one foot directly in front of the other.
  3. Focus on a spot ahead of you to help with balance.
  4. Walk like this for about 20 steps.

3. Chair Squats

Chair squats strengthen the leg muscles and help improve the ability to sit down and stand up.

How to do it:

  1. Stand in front of a sturdy chair with your feet shoulder-width apart.
  2. Lower your body towards the chair as if you're about to sit down.
  3. Hover over the chair for a moment, then stand back up.
  4. Repeat for 10-15 repetitions.

4. Standing on One Leg

This exercise enhances balance and stability, which are crucial for fall prevention.

How to do it:

  1. Stand near a wall or a stable surface for support.
  2. Lift one foot off the ground and balance on the other leg.
  3. Try to hold the position for 20-30 seconds.
  4. Switch to the other leg.

Lifestyle Adjustments for Fall Prevention

In addition to exercise, several lifestyle changes can help prevent falls in the elderly:

1. Regular Vision Check-Ups

Poor vision can contribute to falls. Seniors should have their vision checked regularly and update their eyeglasses or contact lenses as needed.

2. Medication Management

Some medications can cause dizziness or drowsiness, increasing the risk of falls. Seniors should review their medications with their healthcare provider and follow their recommendations closely.

3. Home Safety Modifications

Make your home environment safer by:

  • Removing clutter and tripping hazards.
  • Installing handrails on stairs and in bathrooms.
  • Ensuring good lighting, especially in hallways and stairwells.

4. Wearing Proper Footwear

Choose shoes with non-slip soles that fit well and provide adequate support.

5. Stay Hydrated and Maintain a Healthy Diet

Dehydration and malnutrition can lead to weakness and dizziness. Ensure you are drinking enough water and consuming a balanced diet rich in essential nutrients.

6. Regular Physical Activity

Apart from specific strength and balance exercises, regular physical activity, such as walking or swimming, can improve overall fitness and reduce the risk of falls.

Seek Professional Help

If you or an elderly loved one is concerned about fall risk or has experienced falls in the past, it's advisable to seek professional help. Physical therapists are experts in developing personalized exercise programs to enhance lower extremity strength and balance. They can also assess your specific needs and provide guidance on fall prevention strategies.

Physical therapy sessions typically include:

  • Individualized exercise programs: Tailored to your specific needs and goals.
  • Balance training: Targeting specific balance issues to improve stability.
  • Gait training: Enhancing walking patterns to reduce fall risk.
  • Education: Offering advice on fall prevention techniques and home modifications.

Don't wait until a fall occurs to take action. Proactive measures can significantly reduce the risk of falls and improve the overall quality of life for seniors.


Falls in the elderly are preventable, and strengthening lower extremity muscles and improving balance are key components of fall prevention. By incorporating exercises, making lifestyle adjustments, and seeking guidance from healthcare professionals like physical therapists, seniors can take proactive steps to reduce their fall risk and enjoy a safer and more active life.

Emery Physical Therapy in Mount Prospect, IL, and Emery Physical Therapy in Oakbrook Terrace IL, is here to support seniors in their journey to better strength, balance, and fall prevention. Contact us today to schedule an appointment and start working towards a safer and more confident future.